WHO: Too Much Screen Time Bad for Children
The World Health Organization (WHO) has released its first ever guidance on how much time young children should spend using electronic devices with screens.
On Wednesday, WHO announced that children under five years old should not spend more than one hour a day watching such devices. Less than that is better, officials say, and children under age one should not get any screen time at all.
"What we are cautioning on is over-use of those electronic screen times with young children," WHO expert Fiona Bull told reporters.
The new guidelines are somewhat similar to advice from the American Academy of Pediatrics. That group recommends children younger than 18 months should avoid screens other than video conferences over the internet. It says parents of children under age two should choose "high-quality programming" with educational value. Boys and girls should be able to watch the program with a parent and understand what they are seeing.
The guidelines say that children under five should also be physically active and get enough sleep to help develop good lifelong behaviors. This will help prevent diseases in later life.
"In this age group of under-5s, it is currently 40 million children around the world (who) are overweight. Of that (figure) 50 percent are in Africa and the southeast Asia region," Bull said. The Reuters news agency says that number represents 5.9 percent of all children worldwide.
Early childhood is a period of fast physical and mental development during which behaviors are formed and ways of doing things can be changed, noted WHO. Its guidelines come from evidence in hundreds of studies, many from Australia, Canada, South Africa and the United States.
"Sedentary behaviors, whether riding motorized transport rather than walking or cycling, sitting at a desk in school, watching TV or playing inactive screen-based games" are increasingly common, WHO said. It added that such behaviors have been linked to poor health
Some groups said WHO's screen time guidelines failed to consider the possible benefits of electronic media.
Andrew Przybylski is director of research at the Oxford Internet Institute at the University of Oxford. He told the Associated Press that WHO's screen time advice deals too much with the amount of screen time. He said it fails to consider the quality of the material being watched or how it is being used.
"Not all screen time is created equal," said Przybylski.
Britain's Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health said the study data available was too weak to permit its experts to set any measure for the best level of screen time.
Max Davie is the college's Officer for Health Improvement. He told the AP the restricted screen time limits suggested by WHO do not seem proportionate to the possible harm done.
WHO did not go into much detail about the possible harm caused by too much screen time. But the guidelines did note that lack of sleep in children has been linked with increases in extra fat as measured by body mass index.
Shorter periods spent sleeping has been linked with more time spent watching television and playing computer games, it added.
I'm Dorothy Gundy.
1.electronic devices 電子設備
We ask all our passengers to switch off electronic devices for take-off and landing.
2.Less than 低于
Peterson was let go after less than two years.
3.poor health 健康狀況不佳
His poor health incapacitated him for work.
4.rather than 而不是
The opposition appear to have chosen the path of cooperation rather than confrontation.
5.The guidelines say that children under five should also be physically active and get enough sleep to help develop good lifelong behaviors.
get enough sleep 獲得充足睡眠
I never get enough sleep, and I feel tired all the time.
If I don't get enough sleep I get a terrible headache.
6.He said it fails to consider the quality of the material being watched or how it is being used.
fails to 未能
The State fails to recognize the heavy responsibility that parents take on.
Whoever fails to see this will make a big blunder.
周三，世衛組織宣布，5歲以下兒童每天觀看電子設備的時間不應超過1小時 。有關官員稱時間越短越好 。一歲以下的兒童根本不應該使用任何電子屏幕 。
世衛組織專家菲奧娜·布爾（Fiona Bull）告訴記者：“我們要警惕的是兒童過度使用電子屏幕 。”
這份新指南與美國兒科學會的建議有些類似 。美國兒科學會建議18個月以下的兒童避免接觸電子屏幕，網絡視頻通話除外 。該學會稱，2歲以下兒童應該選擇有教育意義的高質量節目 。孩子們應該跟父母一起觀看節目，并理解觀看的內容 。
布爾表示：“在5歲以下兒童的年齡組中，目前有4000萬兒童超重，其中50%位于非洲和東南亞地區 。”據路透社報道，這一數字占全球兒童總數的5.9% 。
世衛組織指出，幼兒時期是身心快速發展的時期，在此期間，行為習慣得以養成，行事方式可以改變 。該組織的指南出自于數百項研究所提供的證據，其中很多研究來自澳大利亞、加拿大、南非以及美國 。
世衛組織表示：“久坐行為日益普遍，無論是乘機動交通工具而不是步行或是騎自行車、坐在課桌前，觀看電視或玩電子游戲” 。該組織補充說，這類行為與健康不佳有關 。
安德魯·普日比斯基（Andrew Przybylski）是牛津大學互聯網研究所的研究主任 。他告訴美聯社，世衛組織的屏幕使用時長建議過多考慮了屏幕的使用時間 。他說，該建議沒有考慮到觀看內容的質量，或電子屏幕的使用方式 。
馬克斯·戴維（Max Davie）是該學院健康改善部門的官員 。他對美聯社表示，世衛組織建議的電子屏幕時間限制似乎與潛在的傷害不成比例 。
世衛組織沒有詳細地說明過度使用屏幕可能造成的傷害 。但是該指南也指出，兒童睡眠不足跟體重指數測量的額外脂肪增加有關 。